Now days everyone has diabetes, you can get the whole information about diabetes from the given information in this article…
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What is diabetes?
Here we talking about Diabetes, so first, we should know about what is diabetes? Diabetes is a serious complex condition which can affect the entire body. Diabetes requires daily self-care and if complications develop, diabetes can have a significant impact on quality of life and can reduce life expectancy. While there is currently no cure for diabetes, you can live an enjoyable life by learning about the condition and effectively managing it.
Diabetes is a disease that occurs when your blood glucose, also called blood sugar, is too high. Blood glucose is your main source of energy and comes from the food you eat. Insulin, a hormone made by the pancreas, helps glucose from food get into your cells to be used for energy. Sometimes your body doesn’t make enough or any insulin or doesn’t use insulin well. Glucose then stays in your blood and doesn’t reach your cells.
Over time, having too much glucose in your blood can cause health problems. Although diabetes has no cure, you can take steps to manage your diabetes and stay healthy.
Sometimes people call diabetes “a touch of sugar” or “borderline diabetes.” These terms suggest that someone doesn’t really have diabetes or has a less serious case, but every case of diabetes is serious.
What are the different types of diabetes?
The most common types of diabetes are type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes.
Type 1 diabetes:
If you have type 1 diabetes, your body does not make insulin. Your immune system attacks and destroys the cells in your pancreas that make insulin. Type 1 diabetes is usually diagnosed in children and young adults, although it can appear at any age. People with type 1 diabetes need to take insulin every day to stay alive.
Type 2 diabetes:
If you have type 2 diabetes, your body does not make or use insulin well. You can develop type 2 diabetes at any age, even during childhood. However, this type of diabetes occurs most often in middle-aged and older people. Type 2 is the most common type of diabetes.
Gestational diabetes develops in some women when they are pregnant. Most of the time, this type of diabetes goes away after the baby is born. However, if you’ve had gestational diabetes, you have a greater chance of developing type 2 diabetes later in life. Sometimes diabetes diagnosed during pregnancy is actually type 2 diabetes.
Symptoms of Diabetes:
The classic symptoms of untreated diabetes are weight loss, polyuria (increased urination), polydipsia (increased thirst), and polyphagia (increased hunger).Symptoms may develop rapidly (weeks or months) in type 1 Diabetes, while they usually develop much more slowly and may be subtle or absent in type 2 Diabetes.
Several other signs and symptoms can mark the onset of diabetes although they are not specific to the disease. In addition to the known ones above, they include blurry vision, headache, fatigue, slow healing of cuts, and itchy skin. Prolonged high blood glucose can cause glucose absorption in the lens of the eye, which leads to changes in its shape, resulting in vision changes. A number of skin rashes that can occur in diabetes are collectively known as diabetic dermadromes.
Low blood sugar is common in persons with type1 Diabetes and type2 Diabetes. Most cases are mild and are not considered medical emergencies. effects can range from feelings of unease, sweating, trembling and increase appetite in mild cases to more serious issues such as confusion, changing in behaviors such as aggressiveness, seizure, unconsciousness and permanent brain damage or death in severe cases. Moderate hypoglycemia may easily be mistaken for drunkenness; rapid breathing and sweating, cold, pale skin are characteristic of hypoglycemia but not definitive.Mild to moderate cases are self-treated by eating or drinking something high in sugar. Severe cases can lead to unconsciousness and must be treated with intravenous glucose or injections with glucagon.
People (usually with type 1 Diabetes) may also experience episodes of diabetic ketoacidosis, a metabolic disturbance characterized by nausea, vomiting and abdominal, the smell of acetone on the breath, deep breathing known as akousma ul breathing, and in severe cases a decreased level of consciousness.
A rare but equally severe possibility is a hyperosmolar nonketotic state, which is more common in type 2 Diabetes and is mainly the result of dehydration.
All forms of diabetes increase the risk of long-term complications. These typically develop after many years (10–20) but may be the first symptom in those who have otherwise not received a diagnosis before that time.The major long-term complications relate to damage to blood vessels.Diabetes doubles the risk of cardiovascular diseases and about 75% of deaths in diabetics are due to coronary artery disease.The primary complications of diabetes due to damage in small blood vessels include damage to the eyes, kidneys, and nerves.Damage to the eyes, known as diabetic retinopathy, is caused by damage to the blood vessels in the retina of the eye and can result in gradual vision loss and blindness.Damage to the kidneys, known as diabetic nephropathy, can lead to tissue scarring, urine protein loss, and eventually chronic kidney disease, sometimes requiring dialysis or a kidney transplant. Damage to the nerves of the body, known as diabetic neuropathy, is the most common complication of diabetes. The symptoms can include numbness, tingling, pain, and altered pain sensation, which can lead to damage to the skin. Diabetes-related foot problems (such as diabetic foot ulcers) may occur and can be difficult to treat, occasionally requiring amputation. Additionally, proximal diabetic neuropathy causes painful muscle wasting and weakness.
Diabetes is classified into four broad categories: type 1, type 2, gestational diabetes, and “other specific types”.The “other specific types” are a collection of a few dozen individual causes.Diabetes is a more variable disease than once thought and people may have combinations of forms.
Type 1 Causes:
Type 2 diabetes causes are usually multifactorial – more than one diabetes cause is involved. Often, the most overwhelming factor is a family history of type 2 diabetes.
This is the most likely type 2 diabetes cause.
There are a variety of risk factors for type 2 diabetes, any or all of which increase the chances of developing the condition.
- Living a sedentary lifestyle
- Increasing age
- Bad diet
Type 2 diabetes causes:
Type 2 such as pregnancy or illness can be type 2 diabetes risk factors.
Gestational diabetes causes:
The causes of diabetes in pregnancy also known as gestational diabetes remain unknown. However, there are a number of risk factors that increase the chances of developing this condition:
- Family history of gestational diabetes
- Overweight or obese
- Suffer from poly-cystic ovary syndrome
- Have had a large baby weighing over 9 lb
Causes of gestational diabetes may also be related to ethnicity – some ethnic groups have a higher risk of gestational diabetes.
There is no known preventive measure for type 1 diabetes.Type 2 diabetes — which accounts for 85-90% of all cases — can often be prevented or delayed by maintaining a normal body weight, engaging in physical exercise, and consuming a healthful diet. Higher levels of physical activity (more than 90 minutes per day) reduce the risk of diabetes by 28%.Dietary changes known to be effective in helping to prevent diabetes include maintaining a diet rich in whole grains and fiber and choosing good fats, such as the polyunsaturated fats found in nuts, vegetable oils, and fish. Limiting sugary beverages and eating less red meat and other sources of saturated fat can also help prevent diabetes. Tobacco smoking is also associated with an increased risk of diabetes and its complications, so smoking cessation can be an important preventive measure as well.
The relationship between type 2 diabetes and the main modifiable risk factors (excess weight, unhealthy diet, physical inactivity and tobacco use) is similar in all regions of the world. There is growing evidence that the underlying determinants of diabetes are a reflection of the major forces driving social, economic and cultural change: globalization, urbanization, population aging, and the general healthy policy environment.
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